Below is a summary list of IMMEDIATE Trial publications. Click on the PubMed link to view it at

[132] Am Heart J. 2012 Mar;163(3):315-22.
Study design for the Immediate Myocardial Metabolic Enhancement During Initial Assessment and Treatment in Emergency Care (IMMEDIATE) Trial: A double-blind randomized controlled trial of intravenous glucose, insulin, and potassium for acute coronary syndromes in emergency medical services.
Selker HP, Beshansky JR, Griffith JL, D'Agostino RB, Massaro JM, Udelson JE, Rashba EJ, Ruthazer R, Sheehan PR, Desvigne-Nickens P, Rosenberg YD, Atkins JM, Sayah AJ, Aufderheide TP, Rackley CE, Opie LH, Lambrew CT, Cobb LA, Macleod BA, Ingwall JS, Zalenski RJ, Apstein CS.
PMID: 22424000 PMCID: PMC4009621 DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2012.02.002

[133] JAMA. 2012 May 9;307(18):1925-33.
Out-of-hospital administration of intravenous glucose-insulin-potassium in patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes: the IMMEDIATE randomized controlled trial.
Selker HP, Beshansky JR, Sheehan PR, Massaro JM, Griffith JL, D'Agostino RB, Ruthazer R, Atkins JM, Sayah AJ, Levy MK, Richards ME, Aufderheide TP, Braude DA, Pirrallo RG, Doyle DD, Frascone RJ, Kosiak DJ, Leaming JM, Van Gelder CM, Walter GP, Wayne MA, Woolard RH, Opie LH, Rackley CE, Apstein CS, Udelson JE.
PMID: 22452807 PMCID: PMC4167391 DOI: 10.1001/jama.2012.426

[134] Circulation. 2013 Mar 5;127(9):1040-8.
Glucose-insulin-potassium revived: current status in acute coronary syndromes and the energy-depleted heart.
Grossman AN, Opie LH, Beshansky JR, Ingwall JS, Rackley CE, Selker HP.
PMID: 23459576 DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.130625

[142] Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes
Factors Associated With Longer Time to Treatment for Patients With Suspected Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Cohort Study
Alison L. Sullivan, Joni R. Beshansky, Robin Ruthazer, David H. Murman, Timothy J. Mader and Harry P. Selker
Print ISSN: 1941-7705. Online ISSN: 1941-7713

[143] Clin Trials 2014 11: 178
A community consultation survey to evaluate support for and success of the IMMEDIATE trial
Joni R Beshansky, Patricia R Sheehan, Kenneth J Klima, Nira Hadar, Ellen M Vickery and Harry P Selker
DOI: 10.1177/1740774514526476

[144] Am J Cardiol. 2014 May 15;113(10):1599-605. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.02.010. Epub 2014 Mar 1.
One-year outcomes of out-of-hospital administration of intravenous glucose, insulin, and potassium (GIK) in patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes (from the IMMEDIATE [Immediate Myocardial Metabolic Enhancement During Initial Assessment and Treatment in Emergency Care] Trial).
Selker HP, Udelson JE, Massaro JM, Ruthazer R, D'Agostino RB, Griffith JL, Sheehan PR, Desvigne-Nickens P, Rosenberg Y8, Tian X8, Vickery EM7, Atkins JM9, Aufderheide TP10, Sayah AJ11, Pirrallo RG10, Levy MK12, Richards ME13, Braude DA14, Doyle DD15, Frascone RJ16, Kosiak DJ17, Leaming JM18, Van Gelder CM19, Walter GP20, Wayne MA21, Woolard RH22, Beshansky JR4.
PMID: 24792735 PMCID: PMC4043184 DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.02.010

[146] Pharmacogenomics J. 2015 Dec;15(6):488-95. doi: 10.1038/tpj.2015.10. Epub 2015 Mar 17.
Genetic modifiers of response to glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) infusion in acute coronary syndromes and associations with clinical outcomes in the IMMEDIATE trial.
Ellis KL, Zhou Y, Beshansky JR, Ainehsazan E, Selker HP, Cupples LA, Huggins GS, Peter I.
PMID: 25778467 PMCID: PMC4573824 DOI: 10.1038/tpj.2015.10

[149] Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc. 2015 Dec 1;9:37-42.
A predictive model to identify patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes at high risk of cardiac arrest or in-hospital mortality: An IMMEDIATE Trial sub-study
Ray M, Ruthazer R, Beshansky JR, Kent DM, Mukherjee JT, Alkofide H, Selker HP.
PMID: 26913292 PMCID: PMC4762054

[153] Pharmacogenomics J. 2017 Jan;17(1):76-83. doi: 10.1038/tpj.2015.84. Epub 2015 Dec 8.
Common variants associated with changes in levels of circulating free fatty acids after administration of glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) therapy in the IMMEDIATE trial.
Ellis KL, Zhou Y, Rodriguez-Murillo L, Beshansky JR, Ainehsazan E, Selker HP, Huggins GS, Cupples LA, Peter I.
PMID: 26644202 DOI: 10.1038/tpj.2015.84

[154] BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2015 Dec 3;15:163. doi: 10.1186/s12872-015-0153-7.
C-Reactive protein reactions to glucose-insulin-potassium infusion and relations to infarct size in patients with acute coronary syndromes.
Alkofide H, Huggins GS, Beshansky JR, Ruthazer R, Peter I, Ray M, Mukherjee JT, Selker HP.
PMID: 26631004 PMCID: PMC4668670 DOI: 10.1186/s12872-015-0153-7

[156] Am Heart J. 2016 Aug;178:168-75. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2016.03.026. Epub 2016 Jun 2.
Very early administration of glucose-insulin-potassium by emergency medical service for acute coronary syndromes: Biological mechanisms for benefit in the IMMEDIATE Trial.
Selker HP, Harris WS, Rackley CE, Marsh JB, Ruthazer R, Beshansky JR, Rashba EJ, Peter I, Opie LH.
PMID: 27502865 DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2016.03.026

[157] Prehosp Emerg Care. 2011 Apr-Jun;15(2):139-48. doi: 10.3109/10903127.2010.545478.
Emergency medical service predictive instrument-aided diagnosis and treatment of acute coronary syndromes and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in the IMMEDIATE trial.
Selker HP, Beshansky JR, Ruthazer R, Sheehan PR, Sayah AJ, Atkins JM, Aufderheide TP, Pirrallo RG, D'Agostino RB, Massaro JM, Griffith JL.
PMID: 21366431 PMCID: PMC4104416 DOI: 10.3109/10903127.2010.545478